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Abstract


The Ultima Ratio of Turkish Foreign Policy: Turkey’s Syria Policy from Soft to Hard Power
This article analyzes Turkey’s Syria policy between 2002 and 2018 within the dichotomy of soft and hard power. The main argument is that concepts of hard and soft power provide an analytical basis in exploring bilateral relations between Turkey and Syria. This study seeks to explore how the friendship and hostility relations between the two countries are formed within the axis of soft and hard power. In terms of theoretical methodology, this article follows ‘foreign policy changes in case identity changes’ understanding of the Constructionist foreign policy. AK Party government approached towards the region of Middle East in general and Syria in particular via a vision of soft power rather than hard one, which is the primary factor for letting Turkey’s relations with all countries of Middle East develop quickly. But Turkey was obliged to switch from soft to hard power so as to manage the Syrian crisis. In respect to military operations the multidimensional foreign policy of Turkey since 2016 has been downgraded to military instruments, which actually makes the Syrian crisis as the ultimo ratio of Turkish foreign policy.

Keywords
Soft Power, Hard Power, Ultimo Ratio, Strategic Realism, Turkish foreign policy, Syria, Turkey’s Syr


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