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Egyptian Origin Harmful Publications and the Government Measures during the Reign of Sultan Abdulhamid II (1876-1909)
The printing press, which was started to be used by the Muslim people in the Ottoman Empire during the Tulip Period, became a widely used invention in the 19th century. Parallel to this, there was a serious increase in the number of prints in the Ottoman Empire. In the event that printing became widespread in the country, the emergence of harmful, malicious, negative, unrealistic publications was inevitable and led to the idea that control was necessary for the state. Because, according to the opinion of the administration, many publications such as negative publications against the state and those containing attacks on Islam were confusing the public. In the 19th century, these publications were published not only in Anatolia but also in Egypt. It is seen that in Egypt, which was a privileged province of the Ottoman Empire, separatists broadcast this kind of harmful publications. Censorship has been implemented by the state in this regard, and more serious measures have been taken when deemed necessary. Accordingly, the state has established legal and institutional bases to control the press and broadcasting process. These legal grounds and institutions were constantly renewed over time when new problems emerged. The obscene broadcasters have been in an effort to bring these broadcasts to the country by different methods, despite all the measures of the state. The state had to destroy these publications. One of these methods was the attempt to destroy the publications by burning them. This study examines the content of the harmful publications published in Egypt during the period and the measures taken by the state against the harmful publications published in the country in general.

: II. Abdülhamit, Ottoman press, Egypt, censorship, harmful

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