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Similarities and Differences in Voice Types from Dīwān Lughāt Al-Turk to the Present
The frame forms of verbs in Old Turkish are versatile and diverse. Frame affixes are also more functional than today, which can be proven by examining the verbs in the Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk. Some frame forms in the Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk have been out of use in Turkish, while others continue to be used. The functional reductions seen in frame affixes and the introduction of frame forms with different syntactic and lexical methods have narrowed the usage areas of frame types. In this study, the verbs in the Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk are classified according to the forms of passive, causative, transitive, reciprocal, and reflexive, which have been examined in detail. The frame forms exemplified in the Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk are given with their proportional distribution. It is determined at which rate and with what examples these frame forms are used in Turkish today. Features and functions of frame affixes are detected by comparing their use in Karakhanid Turkish and Turkish. Besides, frame forms and affixes used in the Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk that have been out of use today are presented. Inferences have been made about why the frame forms that could not exist today have been abandoned. The frame affix preferences of some verbs in old Turkish and Turkish are compared. Also, the frame possibilities about syntactic components in the Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk have been revealed. Making a proportional analysis of the frame types in the Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk, our first known dictionary and grammar book, will reveal the change Turkish has shown in terms of the frame in time.

Frame Forms of Verbs, Old Turkish, Karakhanid Turkish, The Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk

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