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Abstract


The Introduction of Ghazal in Works of the Sîret Type and the Ghazals in Hasanoğlu's Kitāb-ı Sîretü’n-Nebî
Summary The religion of Islam was adopted by the Turks in the 10th century during the reign of Satuk Buğra Khan, the ruler of the Karakhanid State. Thus, in order to understand the Qur'an and hadiths better, it has become necessary to learn Arabic. First Arabic and then Persian were learned, so Arabic was accepted as the language of science and Persian as the language of literature. In the 11th century, Oghuz tribes started to come to Anatolia and Azerbaijan and turned the demographic structure in the region in favor of Turks. The Great Seljuk State, founded by Tuğrul Bey (1016-1063), took Iran and then Anatolia under its control in a short time. Seljuks accepted Persian as the state language, thus causing Persian and Persian culture to be transferred to Anatolia. In time, the weakening of the central authority, the throne struggles, the Oguz rebellions, the Crusades and the independent movements of the Atabeys collapsed the state. The Anatolian Seljuk State was founded by Süleyman Şah, the son of Kutalmış (1075). Babai revolts, Mongol attacks and the loss of the Kösedağ War collapsed the Seljuk state (1318) and caused the establishment of principalities. On the one hand, the Mongol oppression, on the other hand, the negative spiritual atmosphere caused by the economic difficulties brought about by the occupation drove the people to unhappiness. However, in this period, the dervishes coming from Turkistan and especially members of the sects such as Yesevism, Haydarism, Bektashism, Babaism, wandered in different regions and instilled spiritual endurance with the idea of Sufism and fueled struggling and conquering feelings. This century has also been an age in which the use of Turkish accelerated. Poets such as Ahmed Fakih, Yunus Emre, Şeyyad Hamza, Aşık Pasha grew up in Anatolia and İzzeddin Hasanoğlu in Azerbaijan, causing the use of Turkish to accelerate. İzzeddin Hasanoğlu is a 13th century Azerbaijani poet who uses the pen name "Hesenoğlu" in his Turkish poems and "Puri Hesen" in his Persian poems. According to the writer Devletşah Samarkandi lived in 15th century, he was a follower of Sheikh Cemalüddin Ahmed Zakir and was born in a place called Esferayin / Asfarayin in the Khorasan region. In the 13th century, when Hasanoğlu lived, the same Turkish was spoken in Khorasan, Anatolia and Azerbaijan. However, it is seen that some differences started between the Eastern Oghuz language spoken in Azerbaijan and the Western Oghuz spoken in Anatolia during this period. Fuad Köprülü is the first scholar who introduced him as Azerbaijani poet based on the language of Hasanoğlu's poems. According to the researches, only five poems of the poet have been found so far. In 2010, a masnavi of the poet named "Kitab-i Siret-in Nebi" was found in a personal collection in Finland. This work was purchased and given to the Turkish Language Association. The work has been worked on for more than two years and has been made ready for publication by us. The language of the masnavi has the characteristics of 13th century Azerbaijani Turkish and the ghazals we will present in the article are taken from this work. The second major role in the masnavi, after our prophet Hz. Muhammad, was assigned to Hz. Ali. All the functions of the alpine type heroes, which the Turks have created since mythological ages, brought to Anatolia after adopting Islam, were attributed to Hz. Ali. Thus, a heroic type decorated with fairy-tale and mythological elements was created, and through this type, the image of the combative hero full of Islamic belief was presented to the reader. The subject of human love is also treated in the masnavi. This is clearly seen in some of the ghazals we have chosen from the masnavi. In our opinion, this masnavi is one of the works that laid the basis of war stories about Hz. Ali.

Keywords
Hasanoglu, Oghuz, South Azerbaijan, Khorasan.


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    Karadeniz Araştırmaları "71. Sayı" yayınlandı

    Karadeniz Araştırmaları 71. sayı yayınlandı



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