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Abstract


Geopolitics of the Turkish Straits Until the Second World War
Throughout the history of the world, Turkish Straits remained under the control of many powerful states and have been one of the significant waterways that physically separate the Asian and the European continents but politically unite both of them. Controlling Istanbul through the controlling of the Straits was the ultimate political goal for the strong states in that period. Undoubtedly, its unique geopolitical location provides this value. The Turkish domination of the Straits, Marmara Sea and Black Sea between the conquest of Istanbul in 1453 and the Treaty of Kucuk Kaynarca in 1774 contributed greatly to the Ottoman State being a world empire in this period. One of the most important reasons fort he fall of the Ottoman Empire and the beginning of the First World War in 1914 was the desire of the occupying forces to acquire the Straits. The new Turkey, which rejected the Treaty of Serves imposed on the Ottoman State, reached a significant parts of its National Pact goals with the Lausanne Peace Treaty that signed with the victory of the Independence War. However, the fact that an international commission with the Treaty would manage the Turkish Straits was a great problem in terms of Turkey’s national sovereignty. As a result, after the great diplomatic mission of Turkey, the Montreux Convention in 1936, and the Straits were taken again under Turkish sovereignty; Turkey was prevented from occupied during the war during the Second World War. Turkish Straits had an important role in Turkey’s success in pursuing a policy of balance between warring states and staying out of the war.

Keywords
Turkish Straits, Ottoman Empire, Turkey, Ataturk, Lausanne Peace Treaty, Montreux Convention Regadin


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