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Abstract


Mongolian Elements in the Ethnic Formation of the Kimek-Kipchaks
Although the Kipchak tribes union had the appearance of a structure in which the tribes of Turkish origin were the majority, it included tribes from different origins in both the ethnic formation and the next expansion era. The Kipchaks, who ruled the area from the Irtysh coasts to the Hungarian plains in the steppe for almost two centuries (the second half of the XIth century and the first quarter of the XIIIth century), are of Turkish, Mongolian, Iranian and, to a lesser extent, Finno-Ugric origin they represented a loosely structured confederation of tribes that embodied tribes. The Kipchaks, the strongest tribe among the Kimaks, lived around the rivers Ishim and Tobol, that is, in the western parts of the Kimak lands. Kimaks, like the Kipchaks, was a confederation formed by the union of various tribes in the IXth century. According to what Islamic sources report, the founding tribe had Tatar / Mongolian roots and included various tribes that we will see among the later Oghuzs, especially the Kipchaks. The Kun Migration initiated by the Qai and Kun tribes in Manchuria at the beginning of the XIth century, under the pressure of the Kitans, led to a power change in the West Siberian steppes. Immediately after this event, the Kimaks lost their sovereignty and were replaced by the Kipchaks who ruled in the west of the Kimak country. This new ethnogenesis process continued a century later and this time tribes from the Mongolian environment such as Bayavut and Ölberli joined the Kipchaks.

Keywords
Kipchak, Kimak, Qai, Bayawut, Olberli.


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